Constituição Soviética de 1936


Constituição Soviética de 1936

Tabela de Conteúdo

Créditos e Notas

O texto aqui está baseado na tradução em inglês da constituição adotada em dezembro de 1936, publicada em 1938 pela “Casa de Editoração Política do Estado da URSS” (State Political Publishing House of the USSR). As emendas foram adotadas nas sessões 1ª, 2ª, 3ª, 6ª, 7ª e 8ª do Supremo Soviete da URSS. Elas foram apanhadas da edição de 1941 da Constituição Soviética.

As emendas foram feitas como segue: o Artigo 13 foi emendado nas 6ª, 7ª e 8ª sessões do Supremo Soviete; o Artigo 22 nas 1ª, 2ª, 3ª, 7ª e 8ª; o Artigo 23 nas 1ª, 2ª, 3ª, 7ª e 8ª; os Artigos 26, 28, 29, 49 e 70 na 1ª; o Artigo 48 na 7ª; os Artigos 77, 78 e 83 nas 1ª, 3ª e 8ª. A primeira sessão ocorreu em Janeiro de 1938; a segunda em Agosto; a terceira em Maio de 1939; a sexta em Abril de 1940; a sétima em Agosto; a oitava em Março de 1941. Nas sessões 4 e 5 não houve emendas.

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CAPÍTULO I

Hammer & Sickle

A ORGANIZAÇÃO DA SOCIEDADE SOVIÉTICA

ARTIGO 1. A União de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas é um estado socialista de operários e camponeses.

ARTIGO 2. Os Sovietes de Deputados do Povo, que cresceram e atingiram força como resultado da destituição dos senhorios e capitalistas e da conquista da ditadura do proletariado, constitui a fundação política da U.R.S.S.

ARTIGO 3. Na U.R.S.S. todo o poder pertence ao povo trabalhador das cidades e do país representado pelo Soviete de Deputados do Povo.

ARTIGO 4. O sistema socialista de economia e de propriedade socialista dos meios e instrumentos de produção que firmemente se estabelece como resultado da abolição do sistema econômico capitalista, da propriedade privada dos meios e instrumentos de produção e da exploração do homem pelo homem, constitui a fundação econômica da U.R.S.S.

ARTIGO 5. A propriedade socialista na U.R.S.S. existe tanto como forma de propriedade estatal (a posse de todo o povo), ou como forma de propriedade cooperativa e coletiva (propriedade de uma fazenda coletiva ou propriedade de uma associação cooperativa).

ARTIGO 6. A terra, seus depósitos naturais, águas, florestas, moinhos, fábricas, minas, ferrovias, transporte por água e ar, bancos, correio, telégrafo e telefones, grandes empresas agrícolas organizadas pelo estado (sovkhozes, estações de máquinas e tratores e tal) assim como as empresas municipais e boa parte das habitações nas cidades e localidades industriais, são propriedade do estado, isto é, pertencem a todo o povo.

ARTIGO 7. Empreendimentos públicos nas fazendas coletivas (kolkhozes) e organizações cooperativas, com sua criação e implementos, os produtos dos kolkhozes e organizações cooperativas, assim como seus prédios comuns, constituem a propriedade socialista comum das fazendas coletivas e organizações cooperativas. Além da renda básica do empreendimento do kolkhoz, cada familiar numa fazenda coletiva tem para seu uso pessoal uma pequena porção de terra anexada à residência e, como sua propriedade pessoal, um estabelecimento secundário na porção de terra, uma residência, criação, aves domésticas e implementos agrícolas secundários de acordo com os estatutos do artel agrícola.

ARTIGO 8. A terra ocupada pelas fazendas coletivas está segura de ser utilizada livre de taxas e por tempo ilimitado, isto é, em perpetuidade.

ARTIGO 9. Junto do sistema econômico socialista, que é a forma predominante de economia da U.R.S.S., a lei permite a pequena economia privada de indivíduos camponeses e artesãos baseada em seu trabalho pessoal e impedindo a exploração do trabalho de outros.

ARTIGO 10. O direito dos cidadãos à sua propriedade pessoal das rendas do trabalho e suas poupanças, de suas residências e subsidiária economia familiar, dos móveis e utensílios de sua residência e artigos de uso pessoal e conveniência, assim como o direito de herança da propriedade pessoal dos cidadãos, é protegido por lei.

ARTIGO 11. A vida econômica da U.R.S.S. é determinada e direcionada pelo plano econômico nacional estatal com o objetivo de aumentar a riqueza pública, de regularmente melhorar as condições materiais do povo trabalhador e aumentar seu nível cultural, de consolidar a independência da U.R.S.S. e fortalecer sua capacidade defensiva.

ARTIGO 12. Na U.R.S.S. o trabalho é um dever e uma questão de honra para qualquer cidadão corporalmente-capacitado, de acordo com o princípio: “Aquele que não trabalha, não deve comer.”

O princípio aplicado na U.R.S.S. é o do socialismo: “De cada um, de acordo com suas habilidades, a cada um, de acordo com seu trabalho.”

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CAPÍTULO II

Hammer & Sickle

A ORGANIZAÇÃO DO ESTADO SOVIÉTICO

ARTIGO 13. A União de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas é um estado federal, formado na base da associação voluntária das Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas de terem direitos iguais, nomeadamente:

A República Socialista Federativa Soviética da Rússia

A República Socialista Soviética da Ucrânia

A República Socialista Soviética da Bielorússia

A República Socialista Soviética do Azerbaijão

A República Socialista Soviética da Geórgia

A República Socialista Soviética da Armênia

A República Socialista Soviética do Turcomenistão

A República Socialista Soviética do Uzbequistão

A República Socialista Soviética do Tadjiquistão

A República Socialista Soviética do Cazaquistão

A República Socialista Soviética Carelo-Finlandesa

A República Socialista Soviética da Moldávia

A República Socialista Soviética da Lituânia

A República Socialista Soviética da Latvia

A República Socialista Soviética da Estônia

ARTIGO 14. A juridição da União de Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas, representada por seu maior órgão de autoridade estatal e órgãos do governo, inclui:

a. Representação da União em relações internacionais, conclusão e ratificação de tratados com outros estados;

b. Questões de guerra e paz;

c. Admissão de novas repúblicas à U.R.S.S.;

d. Controle sobre a observância da Constituição da U.R.S.S. e garantir conformidade das Constituições das Repúblicas da União com a Constituição da U.R.S.S.;

e. Confirmação de alterações de fronteiras entre as Repúblicas da União;

f. Confirmação da formação de novos territórios e região e também de novas Repúblicas Autônomas dentro da União de Repúblicas;

g. Organização da defesa da U.R.S.S. e direção de todas as forças armadas da U.R.S.S.;

h. Comércio estrangeiro com base no monopólio estatal;

i. Salvaguarda da segurança do estado;

j. Estabelecimento de plano econômicos nacionais na U.R.S.S.;

k. Aprovação do orçamento único estatal da U.R.S.S. assim como as taxas e receitas públicas que vão para todos – orçamentos da União, das Repúblicas e locais;

l. Administração dos bancos, estabelecimentos industriais e agrícolas e empresas e empresas de negócio de importância para toda a União;

m. Administração do transporte e das comunicações;

n. Direção do sistema monetário e crédito;

o. Organização do seguro estatal;

p. Criação e concessão de empréstimos;

q. Estabelecimento dos princípios básicos pelo uso da terra assim como o uso dos depósitos naturais, florestas e águas;

r. Estabelecimento dos princípios básicos nas esferas da educação e saúde pública;

s. Organização de um sistema uniforme de estatística econômica nacional;

t. Estabelecimento dos princípios da legislação trabalhista;

u. Legislação sobre o sistema judiciário e procedimento judiciário; códigos criminais e civis;

v. Leis sobre a cidadania da União; leis sobre os direitos dos estrangeiros;

w. Publicação dos atos de anistia de toda a União.

ARTIGO 15. A soberania da União de República é limitada apenas dentro das provisões determinadas no artigo 14 da Constituição da URSS. Fora dessas provisões, cada República da União exercita autoridade estatal independentemente. A U.R.S.S. protege a soberania de direitos das Repúblicas da União.

ARTIGO 16. Cada República possui sua própria Constituição, que tenha em conta as características específicas da República e foi elaborada em total conformidade com a Constituição da U.R.S.S.

ARTIGO 17. Para cada União República é reservado o direito de livremente se separar da U.R.S.S.

ARTIGO 18. O território de uma república da União não podem ser alterados sem o seu consentimento.

ARTIGO 19. As leis da URSS têm o mesmo vigor no território de cada União República.

ARTIGO 20. Em caso de divergência entre a lei de um República da União e uma lei de toda-União, a lei de toda-União prevalece.

ARTIGO 21. Uma única cidadania da União é estabelecida para todos os cidadãos da U.R.S.S.

Qualquer cidadão de uma República da União é um cidadão da U.R.S.S.

ARTIGO 22. A República Socialista Federativa Soviética da Rússia consiste nos Territórios de Altai, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Ordjonikidze, Maritime e Khabarovsk; as Regiões Arcangel, Vologda, Voronej, Gorky, Ivanovo, Irkutsk, Kalinin, Kirov, Kuibyshev, Kursk, Leningrado, Molotov, Moscou, Murmansk, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orel, Penza, Rostov, Ryazan, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Smolensk, Stalingrado, Tambov, Tula, Chelyabinsk, Chita, Chkalov e Yaroslavl; As Repúblicas Socialistas Soviéticas Autônomas Tartária, Bascortostão, Daguestão, Buriácia-Mongol, Cabárdia-Balcária, Calmúquia, Komi, Crimeia, Mari, Mordóvia, Volga Alemão, Ossétia do Norte, Udmúrtia, Checheno-Inguchétia, Chuváchia e Iacútia; e as Regiões Autônomas Adiguésia, Oblast Judaico, Carachai, Oirate, Cacássia e Circássia.

ARTIGO 23. A República Socialista Soviética da Ucrânia consistena nas Regiões de Vinnitsa, Volynsk, Voroshilovgrad, Dnepropetrovsk, Drogobych, Zhitomir, Zaporozhe, Izmail, Kamenets-Podolsk, Kiev, Kirovograd, Lvov, Nikolaev, Odessa, Poltava, Rovno, Stalino, Stanislav, Sumy, Tarnopol, Kharkov, Chemigov e Chernovitsy.

ARTIGO 24. A República Socialista Soviética do Azerbaijão inclui a República Socialista Soviética Autônoma do Naquichevão e a Região Autônoma de Nagorno-Karabakh.

ARTIGO 25. A República Socialista Soviética do Azerbaijão inclui a República Socialista Soviética Autônoma da Abkházia, a República Socialista Soviética Autônoma de Adjara e a Região Autônoma da Ossétia do Sul.

ARTIGO 26. A República Socialista Soviética do Usbequistão consiste nas Regiões de Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent, Ferghana e Khorezm, e na República Socialista Soviética Autônoma de Kara-Kalpak.

ARTIGO 27. A República Socialista Soviética do Tajiquistão consiste nas Regiões de Garm, Kuliab, Leninabad e Stalinabad, e na Região Autônoma Gorno-Badakhchan.

ARTIGO 28. A República Socialista Soviética do Cazaquistão consiste nas Regiões de Akmolinsk, Aktyubinsk, Alma-Ata, Cazaquistão do Leste, Guryev, Djambul, Cazaquistão do Oeste, Karaganda, Kzyl-Orda, Kustanai, Pavlodar, Cazaquistão do Norte, Serney e Cazaquistão do Sul.

ARTIGO 29. A República Socialista Soviética da Bielorússia consiste nas Regiões de Baranovichi, Byelostok, Brest, Vileika, Vitebsk, Gomel, Minsk, Moghilev, Pinsk e Polésia.

ARTIGO 29a. A República Socialista Soviética do Turcomenistão consiste nas Regiões de Ashkhabad, Krasnovodsk, Mari, Tashauz e Chardzhou.

ARTIGO 29b. A República Socialista Soviética do Quirguistão consiste nas Regiões de Dzhalal-Abad, Issyk-Kul, Osh, Tian-Shan e Frunze.

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CAPÍTULO III

Hammer & Sickle

OS MAIORES ÓRGÃOS DE AUTORIDADE ESTATAL DAS REPÚBLICAS SOCIALISTA SOVIÉTICAS

ARTICLE 30. The highest organ of state authority of the U.S.S.R. is the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 31. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. exercises all rights vested in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in accordance with Article 14 of the Constitution, in so far as they do not, by virtue of the Constitution, come within the jurisdiction of organs of the U.S.S.R. that are accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., that is, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. and the People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 32. The legislative power of the U.S.S.R. is exercised exclusively by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 33. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. consists of two Chambers: the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities.

ARTICLE 34. The Soviet of the Union is elected by the citizens of the U.S.S.R. according to electoral areas on the basis of one deputy for every 300,000 of the population.

ARTICLE 35. The Soviet of Nationalities is elected by the citizens of the U.S.S.R. according to Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Regions and national areas on the basis of twenty-five deputies from each Union Republic, eleven deputies from each Autonomous Republic, five deputies from each Autonomous Region and one deputy from each national area.

ARTICLE 36. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is elected for a term of four years.

ARTICLE 37. Both Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities, have equal rights.

ARTICLE 38. The Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities have an equal right to initiate legislation.

ARTICLE 39. A law is considered adopted if passed by both Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. by a simple majority vote in each.

ARTICLE 40. Laws passed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are published in the languages of the Union Republics over the signatures of the President and Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 41. Sessions of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities begin and terminate simultaneously.

ARTICLE 42. The Soviet of the Union elects a Chairman of the Soviet of the Union and two Vice-Chairmen.

ARTICLE 43. The Soviet of Nationalities elects a Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities and two Vice-Chairmen.

ARTICLE 44. The Chairmen of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities preside over the sittings of the respective Chambers and direct the procedure of these bodies.

ARTICLE 45. Joint sittings of both Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are presided over alternately by the Chairman of the Soviet of the Union and the Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities.

ARTICLE 46. Sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. twice a year.

Special sessions are convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at its discretion or on the demand of one of the Union Republics.

ARTICLE 47. In the event of disagreement between the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities, the question is referred for settlement to a conciliation commission formed on a parity basis. If the conciliation commission fails to arrive at an agreeinent, or if its decision fails to satisfy one of the Chambers, the question is considered for a second time by the Chambers. Failing agreement between the two Chambers, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. dissolves the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and orders new elections.

ARTICLE 48. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at a joint sitting of both Chambers elects the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. consisting of a President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., sixteen Vice-Presidents, a Secretary of the Presidium and twenty-four members of the Presidium.The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for all its activities.

ARTICLE 49.The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.:

  1. Convenes the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.;
  2. Interprets laws of the U.S.S.R. in operation, issues decrees;
  3. Dissolves the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. in conformity with article 47 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. and orders new elections;
  4. Conducts referendums on its own initiative or on the demand of one of the Union Republics;
  5. Annuls decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. and of the Councils of People’s Commissars of the Union Republics in case they do not conform to law;
  6. In the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., relieves of their posts and appoints People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. on the recommendation of the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R., subject to subsequent confirmation by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.;
  7. Awards decorations and confers titles of honor of the U.S.S.R.;
  8. Exercises the right of pardon;
  9. Appoints and removes the higher commands of the armed forces of the U.S.S.R.;
  10. In the intervals between sessions of. the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., proclaims a state of war in the event of armed attack on the U.S.S.R., or whenever necessary to fulfill international treaty obligations concerning mutual defense against aggression
  11. Orders general or partial mobilization;
  12. Ratifies international, treaties;
  13. Appoints and recalls plenipotentiary representatives of the U.S.S.R. to foreign states;
  14. Receives the credentials and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives accredited to it by foreign states;
  15. Proclaims martial law in separate localities or throughout the U.S.S.R. in the interests of the defense of the U.S.S.R. or for the purpose of ensuring public order and state security.

ARTICLE 50. The Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities elect Credentials Commissions which verify the credentials of the members of the respective Chambers.

On the recommendation of the Credentials Commissions, the Chambers decide either to endorse the credentials or to annul the election of the deputies concerned.

ARTICLE 51. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., when it deems necessary, appoints commissions of inquiry and investigation on any matter.It is the duty of all institutions and public servants to comply with the demands of these commissions and to submit to them the necessary materials and documents.

ARTICLE 52. A member of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. may not be prosecuted or arrested without the consent of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., and during the period when the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is not in session, without the consent of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 53. On the expiration of the term of office of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., or after the dissolution of the Supreme Soviet prior to the expiration of its term of office, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. retains its powers until the formation of a new Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. by the newly-elected Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 54.On the expiration of the term of office of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., or in the event of its dissolution prior to the expiration of its term of office, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. orders new elections to be held within a period not exceeding two months from the date of expiration of the term of office or dissolution of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 55. The newly-elected Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is convened by the outgoing Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. not later than one month after the elections.

ARTICLE 56. The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at a joint sitting of both Chambers, appoints the Government of the U.S.S.R., namely, the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.

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CAPÍTULO IV

Hammer & Sickle

THE HIGHEST ORGANS OF STATE AUTHORITY OF THE UNION REPUBLICS

ARTICLE 57. The highest organ of state authority of a Union Republic is the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic.

ARTICLE 58. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic is elected by the citizens of the Republic for a term of four years.

The basis of representation is established by the Constitution of the Union Republic.ARTICLE 59. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic is the sole legislative organ of the Republic.ARTICLE 60.The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic:

  1. Adopts the Constitution of the Republic and amends it in conformity with Article 16 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R.;
  2. Confirms the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics forming part of it and defines the boundaries of their territories;
  3. Approves the national economic plan and also the budget of the Republic;
  4. Exercises the right of amnesty and pardon of citizens sentenced by the judicial organs of the Union Republic.

ARTICLE 61. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic elects the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic, consisting of a Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic, Vice-Chairmen, a Secretary of the Presidium and members of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic. The powers of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic are defined by the Constitution of the Union Republic.

ARTICLE 62. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic elects a Chairman and Vice-Chairmen to conduct its sittings.

ARTICLE 63. The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic appoints the Government of the Union Republic, namely, the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union Republic.

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CAPÍTULO V

Hammer & Sickle

THE ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

ARTICLE 64. The highest executive and administrative organ of state authority of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 65. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. is responsible to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and accountable to it; and in the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet it is responsible and accountable to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 66. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. issues decisions and orders on the basis and in pursuance of the laws in operation, and supervises their execution.

ARTICLE 67. Decisions and Orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. are binding throughout the territory of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 68. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.:

  1. Coordinates and directs the work of the All-Union and Union-Republican People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R. and of other institutions, economic and cultural, under its administration;
  2. Adopts measures to carry out the national economic plan and the state budget, and to strengthen the credit and monetary system;
  3. Adopts measures for the maintenance of public order, for the protection of the interests of the state, and for the safeguarding of the rights of citizens;
  4. Exercises general guidance in respect of relations with foreign states;
  5. Fixes the annual contingent of citizens to be called up for military service and directs the general organization and development of the armed forces of the country;
  6. Sets up, whenever necessary, special committees and Central Administrations under the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. for matters conceming economic, cultural and defense organization and development.

ARTICLE 69. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. has the right, in respect of those branches of administration and economy which come within the jurisdiction of the U.S.S.R., to suspend decisions and orders of the Councils of People’s Commissars of the Union Republics and to annul orders and instructions of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 70. The Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and consists of:

The Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.;The Vice-Chairmen of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.;The Chairman of the State Planning Commission of the U.S.S.R.;The People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R.;The Chairman of the Committee on Arts;The Chairman of the Committee on Higher Education;The Chairman of the Board of the State Bank.

ARTICLE 71. The Government of the U.S.S.R. or a People’s Commissar of the U.S.S.R. to whom a question of a member of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is addressed must give a verbal or written reply in the respective Chamber within a period not exceeding three days.

ARTICLE 72. The People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. direct the branches of state administration which come within the jurisdiction of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 73.The People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. issue, within the limits of the jurisdiction of the respective People’s Commissariats, orders and instructions on the basis and in pursuance of the laws in operation, and also of decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R., and supervise their execution.

ARTICLE 74. The People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R. are either All-Union or Union-Republican Commissariats.

ARTICLE 75. The All-Union People’s Commissariats direct the branches of state administration entrusted to them throughout the territory of the U.S.S.R. either directly or through bodies appointed by them.

ARTICLE 76. The Union-Republican People’s Commissariats, as a rule, direct the branches of state administration entrusted to them through the corresponding People’s Commissariats of the Union Republics; they administer directly only a definite and limited number of enterprises according to a list confirmed by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 77. The following People’s Commissariats are All-Union People’s Commissariats: Defense, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade, Railways, Post and Telegraph and Telephones, Maritime Transport, River Transport, Coal Industry, Oil Industry, Power Stations, Electrical Industry, Iron and Steel Industry, Non-Ferrous Metallurgy, Chemical Industry, Aviation Industry, Shipbuilding Industry, Munitions, Armaments, Heavy Machine-building, Medium Machine-building, General Machine-building, Navy, Agricultural Procurement, Construction, Paper and Cellulose Industry.

ARTICLE 78. The following People’s Commissariats are Union-Republican People’s Commissariats: Food Industry, Fish Industry, Meat and Dairy Industry, Light Industry, Textile Industry, Timber Industry, Agriculture State Grain and Livestock Farms, Finance, Trade, Internal Affairs, State Security, Justice, Public Health, Building Materials Industry, State Control.

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CAPÍTULO VI

Hammer & Sickle

THE ORGANS OF GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION REPUBLICS

ARTICLE 79. The highest executive and administrative organ of state authority of a Union Republic is the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union Republic.

ARTICLE 80. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic is responsible to the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic and accountable to it; and in the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic it is responsible and accountable to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the respective Union Republic.

ARTICLE 81. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic issues decisions and orders on the basis and in pursuance of the laws in operation of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republic, and of the decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R., and supervises their execution.

ARTICLE 82. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic has the right to suspend decisions and orders of Councils of People’s Commissars of Autonomous Republics, and to annul decisions and orders of Executive Committees of Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of Territories, Regions and Autonomous Regions.

ARTICLE 83. The Council of People’s Commissars of a Union Republic is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic and consists of:

The Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union Republic;The Vice-Chairmen;The Chairman of the State Planning Commission;The People’s Commissars of:The Food Industry, Fish Industry, Meat and Dairy Industry, Light Industry, Textile Industry, Timber Industry, Building Materials Industry, Agriculture, State Grain and Livestock Farms, Finance, Trade, Internal Affairs, State Security, Justice, Public Health, State Control, Education, Local Industry, Municipal Economy, Social Maintenance, Automobile Transport, The Chief of the Arts Administration, The Representatives of the All-Union People’s Commissariats.

ARTICLE 84. The People’s Commissars of a Union Republic direct the branches of state administration which come under the jurisdiction of the Union Republic.

ARTICLE 85. The People’s Commissars of a Union Republic issue, within the limits of the jurisdiction of their respective People’s Commissariats, orders and instructions on the basis and in pursuance of the laws of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republic, of the decisions and orders of the Council of People’s Commissars of the U.S.S.R. and that of the Union Republic, and of the orders and instructions of the Union Republican People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 86.The People’s Commissariats of a Union Republic are either Union-Republican or Republican Commissariats.

ARTICLE 87. The Union-Republican People’s Commissariats direct the branches of state administration entrusted to them, and are subordinate both to the Council bf People’s Commissars of the Union Republic and to the corresponding’ Union-Republican People’s Commissariats of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 88. The Republican People’s Commissariats direct the branches of state administration entrusted to them and are directly subordinate to the Council of People’s Commissars of the Union Republic.

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CAPÍTULO VII

Hammer & Sickle

THE HIGHEST ORGANS OF STATE AUTHORITY OF THE AUTONOMOUS SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

ARTICLE 89. The highest organ of state authority of an Autonomous Republic is the Supreme Soviet of the respective Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

ARTICLE 90. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is elected by the citizens of the Republic for a term of four years on the basis of representation established by the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic.

ARTICLE 91. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is the sole legislative organ of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

ARTICLE 92. Each Autonomous Republic has its own Constitution which takes account of the specific features of the Autonomous Republic and is drawn up in full conformity with the Constitution of the Union Republic.

ARTICLE 93. The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic elects the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and appoints the Council of People’s Commissars of the Autonomous Republic, in accordance with its Constitution.

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CAPÍTULO VIII

Hammer & Sickle

OS ÓRGÃOS LOCAIS DE AUTORIDADE DO ESTADO

ARTIGO 94. Os órgãos de autoridade estatal nos territórios, regiões, regiões autônomas, áreas, distritos, cidades e localidades rurais (estações, vilas, aldeias, kishlaks, auls) são os Sovietes de Deputados do Povo Trabalhador.

ARTIGO 95. Os soviéticos do Trabalho Deputados do Povo de territórios, regiões, regiões autônomas, regiões, distritos, cidades e localidades rurais (estações, vilas, aldeias, kishlaks, auls) são eleitos pelo povo de trabalho dos respectivos territórios, regiões, regiões autônomas, as áreas , bairros, cidades ou localidades rurais com um mandato de dois anos.

ARTIGO 96. A base da representação dos Sovietes de Deputados do Povo de trabalho é definido pelas Constituições das repúblicas da União República.

ARTIGO 97. Os soviéticos do Trabalho Deputados do Povo dirigir o trabalho dos órgãos da administração subordinado a eles, garantir a manutenção da ordem pública, a observância das leis e da proteção dos direitos dos cidadãos, a organização local econômico direto e cultural e ao desenvolvimento e elaborar os orçamentos locais.

ARTIGO 98. Os Sovietes de Deputados do Povo Trabalhador deve tomar decisões e dar ordens dentro dos limites dos poderes conferidos pelas leis da URSS e da União República.

ARTIGO 99. Os órgãos executivos e administrativos dos Sovietes de Trabalho Deputados do Povo de territórios, regiões, regiões autônomas, zonas, distritos, cidades e localidades rurais são os Comitês Executivos eleitos por eles, constituído por um presidente, vice-presidentes, um secretário e os membros.

ARTIGO 100. O órgão executivo e administrativo dos sovietes rurais do Trabalho Popular Deputles em pequenas localidades, em conformidade com as Constituições das repúblicas da União, é o Presidente, o Vice-Presidente e Secretário eleitos por eles.

ARTIGO 101. Os órgãos executivos dos Sovietes de Deputados do Povo de trabalho são diretamente responsáveis, tanto para os Sovietes de Deputados do Povo de trabalho que os elegeram e que o órgão executivo da União Soviética superior do Trabalho Deputados do Povo.

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CAPÍTULO IX

Hammer & Sickle

THE COURTS AND THE PROCURATOR’S OFFICE

ARTICLE 102. In the U.S.S.R. justice is administered by the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R., the Supreme Courts of the Union Republics, the Territorial and the Regional courts, the courts of the Autonomous Republics and the Autonomous Regions, the Area courts, the special courts of the U.S.S.R. established by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., and the People’s Courts.

ARTICLE 103. In all courts cases are tried with the participation of people’s assessors, except in cases specially provided for by law.

ARTICLE 104. The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. is the highest judicial organ. The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. is charged with the supervision of the judicial activities of all the judicial organs of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republics.

ARTICLE 105. The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. and the special courts of the U.S.S.R. are elected by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for a term of five years.

ARTICLE 106. The Supreme Courts of the Union Republics are elected by the Supreme Soviets of the Union Republics for a term of five years.

ARTICLE 107. The Supreme Courts of the Autonomous Republics are elected by the Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Republics for a term of five years.

ARTICLE 108. The Territorial and the Regional courts, the courts of the Autonomous Regions and the Area courts are elected by the Territorial, Regional or Area Soviets of Working People’s Deputies or by the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of the Autonomous Regions for a term of five years.

ARTICLE 109. People’s Courts are elected by the citizens of the district on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot for a term of three years.

ARTICLE 110. Judicial proceedings are conducted in the language of the Union Republic, Autonomous Republic or Autonomous Region, persons not knowing this language being guaranteed every opportunity of fully acquainting themselves with the material of the case through an interpreter and likewise the right to use their own language in court.

ARTICLE 111. In all courts of the U.S.S.R. cases are heard in public, unless otherwise. provided for by law, and the accused is guaranteed the right to be defended by Counsel.

ARTICLE 112. Judges are independent and subject only to the law.

ARTICLE 113. Supreme supervisory power over the strict execution of the laws by all People’s Commissariats and institutions subordinated to them, as well as by public servants and citizens of the U.S.S.R., is vested in the Procurator of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 114. The Procurator of the U.S.S.R. is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for a term of seven years.

ARTICLE 115. Procurators of Republics, Territories and Regions, as well as Procurators of Autonomous Republics and Autonomous Regions, are appointed by the Procurator of the U.S.S.R. for a term of five years.

ARTICLE 116. Area, district and city procurators are appointed for a term of five years by the Procurators of the Union Republics, subject to the approval of the Procurator of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 117. The organs of the Procurator’s Office perform their functions independently of any local organs whatsoever, being subordinate solely to the Procurator of the U.S.S.R.

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CAPÍTULO X

Hammer & Sickle

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS

ARTICLE 118. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to work, that is, are guaranteed the right to employment and payment for their work in accordance With its quantity and quality.

The right to work is ensured by the socialist organization of the national economy, the steady growth of the productive forces of Soviet society, the elimination of the possibility of economic crises, and the abolition of unemployment.

ARTICLE 119. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to rest and leisure. The right to rest and leisure is ensured by the reduction of the working day to seven hours for the overwhelming majority of the workers, the institution of annual vacations with full pay for workers and employees and the provision of a wide network of sanatoria, rest homes and clubs for the accommodation of the working people.

ARTICLE 120. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to maintenance in old age and also in case of sickness or loss of capacity to work. This right is ensured by the extensive development of social insurance of workers and employees at state expense, free medical service for the working people and the provision of a wide network of health resorts for the use of the working people.

ARTICLE 121.Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to education. This right is ensured by universal, compulsory elementary education; by education, including higher education, being free of charge; by the system of state stipends for the overwhelming majority of students in the universities and colleges; by instruction in schools being conducted in the native Ianguage, and by the organization in the factories, state farms, machine and tractor stations and collective farms of free vocational, technical and agronomic training for the working people.

ARTICLE 122. Women in the U.S.S.R. are accorded equal rights with men in all spheres of economic, state, cultural, social and political life. The possibility of exercising these rights is ensured to women by granting them an equal right with men to work, payment for work, rest and leisure, social insurance and education, and by state protection of the interests of mother and child, prematernity and maternity leave with full pay, and the provision of a wide network of maternity homes, nurseries and kindergartens.

ARTICLE 123. Equality of rights of citizens of the U.S.S.R., irrespective of their nationality or race, in all spheres of economic, state, cultural, social and political life, is an indefeasible law. Any direct or indirect restriction of the rights of, or, conversely, any establishment of direct or indirect privileges for, citizens on account of their race or nationality, as well as any advocacy of racial or national exclusiveness or hatred and contempt, is punishable by law.

ARTICLE 124. In order to ensure to citizens freedom of conscience, the church in the U.S.S.R. is separated from the state, and the school from the church. Freedom of religious worship and freedom of antireligious propaganda is recognized for all citizens.

ARTICLE 125. In conformity with the interests of the working people, and in order to strengthen the socialist system, the citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed by law:

  1. freedom of speech;
  2. freedom of the press;
  3. freedom of assembly, including the holding of mass meetings;
  4. freedom of street processions and demonstrations.

These civil rights are ensured by placing at the disposal of the working people and their organizations printing presses, stocks of paper, public buildings, the streets, communications facilities and other material requisites for the exercise of these rights.

ARTICLE 126. In conformity with the interests of the working people, and in order to develop the organizational initiative and political activity of the masses of the people, citizens of the U.S.S.R. are ensured the right to unite in public organizations–trade unions, cooperative associations, youth organizations,’ sport and defense organizations, cultural, technical and scientific societies; and the most active and politically most conscious citizens in the ranks of the working class and other sections of the working people unite in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), which is the vanguard of the working people in their struggle to strengthen and develop the socialist system and is the leading core of all organizations of the working people, both public and state.

ARTICLE 127. Citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed inviolability of the person. No person may be placed under arrest except by decision of a court or with the sanction of a procurator.

ARTICLE 128.The inviolability of the homes of citizens and privacy of correspondence are protected by law.

ARTICLE 129. The U.S.S.R. affords the right of asylum to foreign citizens persecuted for defending the interests of the working people, or for their scientific activities, or for their struggle for national liberation.

ARTICLE 130. It is the duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R. to abide by the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to observe the laws, to maintain labor discipline, honestly to perform public duties, and to respect the rules of socialist intercourse.

ARTICLE 131. It is the duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R. to safeguard and strengthen public, socialist property as the sacred and inviolable foundation of the Soviet system, as the source of the wealth and might of the country, as the source of the rosperous and cultured life of all the working people.

Persons committing offenses against public, socialist property are enemies of the people.

ARTICLE 132. Universal military service is law. Military service in the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army is an honorable duty of the citizens of the U.S.S.R.

ARTICLE 133. To defend the fatherland is the sacred duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R. Treason to the country–violation of the oath of allegiance, desertion to the enemy, impairing the military power of the state, espionage is punishable with all the severity of the law as the most heinous of crimes.

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CAPÍTULO XI

Hammer & Sickle

THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM

ARTICLE 134. Members of all Soviets of Working People’s Deputies–of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., the Supreme Soviets of the Union Republics, the Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of the Territories and Regions, the Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Republics, and Soviets of Working People’s Deputies of Autonomous Regions, area, district, city and rural (station, village, hamlet, kishlak, aul) Soviets of Working People’s Deputies–are chosen by the electors on the basis of universal, direct and equal suffrage by secret ballot.

ARTICLE 135. Elections of deputies are universal: all citizens of the U.S.S.R. who have reached the age of eighteen, irrespective of race or nationality, religion, educational and residential qualifications, social origin, property status or past activities, have the right to vote in the election of deputies and to be elected, with the exception of insane persons and persons who have been convicted by a court of law and whose sentences include deprivation of electoral rights.

ARTICLE 136. Elections of deputies are equal: each citizen has one vote; all citizens participate in elections on an equal footing.

ARTICLE 137. Women have the right to elect and be elected on equal terms with men.

ARTICLE 138. Citizens serving in the Red Army have the right to elect and be elected on equal terms with all other citizens.

ARTICLE 139. Elections of deputies are direct: all Soviets of Working People’s Deputies, from rural and city Soviets of Working People’s Deputies to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., inclusive, are elected by the citizens by direct vote.

ARTICLE 140. Voting at elections of deputies is secret.

ARTICLE 141. Candidates for election are nominated according to electoral areas. The right to nominate candidates is secured to public organizations and societies of the working people: Communist Party organizations, trade unions, cooperatives, youth organizations and cultural societies.

ARTICLE 142. It is the duty of every deputy to report to his electors on his work and on the work of the Soviet of Working People’s Deputies, and he is liable to be recalled at any time in the manner established by law upon decision of a majority of the electors.

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CAPÍTULO XII

Hammer & Sickle

ARMS, FLAG, CAPITAL

ARTICLE 143. The arms of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics consist of a sickle and hammer against a globe depicted in the rays of the sun and surrounded by ears of grain with the inscription “Workers of All Countries, Unite!” in the languages of the Union Republics. At the top of the arms is a five-pointed star. Socialist Republics is of red cloth with the sickle and hammer depicted in gold in the upper corner near the staff and above them a five-pointed red star bordered in gold. The ratio of the width to the length is 1: 2.

ARTICLE 145. The capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is the City of Moscow.

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CAPÍTULO XIII

Hammer & Sickle

PROCEDURE FOR AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE 146. The Constitution of the U.S.S.R. may be amended only by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. adopted by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the votes cast in each of its Chambers.

Fonte: http://iglusubversivo.wordpress.com/2009/12/29/constituicao-sovietica-de-1936/

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